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레이블이 History인 게시물을 표시합니다. 모든 게시물 표시
레이블이 History인 게시물을 표시합니다. 모든 게시물 표시

2017년 8월 20일 일요일

[Book Reveiw] The daily life in 'terrorism' and the desire for 'order' ~ Inside Nazi Germany(Detlev J. K. Peukert)

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The daily life in 'terrorism' and the desire for 'order'

(This article uses Google Translate 'Korean-->English')
We are, by experience the history of fashion, but is easy to say, it is possible to obtain the difficult lessons to practice. Reverence of life, joy to their different opinions and diversity, stranger to respect, tolerance to that confusion, feasibility and hope of the meeting of the apocalyptic overall new order, social utility such as other openness and learning ability to raise the issue in its own norms for is it. (in the Text)

'Daily life' as an experience of 'small people'

In the recording film or photograph that depicts Hitler speaking in front of the masses, you can see the crowd enthusiastically enthralled as it shines while keeping the spirit that came with the whole body in Hitler's inflammatory speech. Some just together in an excitement atmosphere, because of some fun and curiosity, some others may pretend to be reluctantly enthralled so much overwhelming atmosphere, but many of them It is a fact that I believed and supported Hitler and Nazi, whether it is positive or passive. As it was, the last train of Auschwitz was able to depart exactly.

Fascism explaining Nazism and totalitarian theory say that the masses were not able to resist correctly because the mechanism of suppression of the Nazis state, such as violence, terrorism, surveillance, worked. They ignore the experience of people who are made like ordinary historians, the 'small people'. Both of theories will not substitute by research that focused on everyday life in the cycle, conveying a partial insight of the legitimate Nazism as it is. However, research on everyday life can not be replaced by the previous two theories. The first is to see the whole forest and the other to complement the departments that are sarpims of the trees that are mutually insufficient. The attempts of Nazism multilateral research can be divided into various understandings Provide a perspective that can gain deep insight.

Violence as a result of contemporary attempts to produce order

『Inside Nazi Germany (Volksgenossen und Gemeinschaftsfremde: Anpassung, Ausmerze und Aufbegehren unter dem Nationalsozialismus by Detlev Peukert)』 is, in the third mechanism is partial of the empire of oppression, but was operating normally, non of the 'small people' It shows that it could not control everything up to the governmental private part. Complaints • Frequent complaints were reported to local Nazis organizations and reported to Social Democratic Party leaders who exiled abroad by moles. However, their complaints - dissatisfaction did not lead to aggressive resistance, such as attempting to overthrow the regime or conducting demonstrations. It is co-located with the tacit consent of the system it is passive if their criticism is aggressive, the consent top of the life nor the other, that is, because had been built on top of the basic desire employment and order is there. In the memories of many elderly people, the Third Reich is frequently remembered in two achievements. Point can be placed upright in front of the door without entering a lock of the bicycle at the time, and long hair and the gang thing is that it was taken to the Imperial Labor Corps (Korean elderly Park Chung-hee era and Chun Doo-hwan is a surface, such as similar to that to miss the 'Samcheong-dong Training Center' of the regime). The Nazis, by long-term accommodated in the camp of the so-called professional criminal and anti-social gypsy and habitual gay, it was possible to obtain a wide range of support from the people. People who criticized the Nazi to torture and hold confidential holdings of the Nazis also supported the same. These day-to-day life is testament to the fact that the national cry for order was contained actively or passively consent of terror from above.

Harald Welzer is his book 『Climate Wars』, ethnic cleansing and ethnic elimination are not escape phenomena from modern alleys. It was generated as a social possibility, itself, which the development of contemporary society may cause. And as a result of contemporary attempts to produce order, explain that modern attempts to solve the social problem people felt sensibly had resulted. Next, the agreement of the Nazi regime, as often mentioned, is not from the fear of terrorism being forced by the Nazis, but as long as terrorism is aiming for 'The enemy of the community', so called Detlev Peukert's interpretation that it should be evaluated that it was attributed emotionally to this German citizen who contributed to the rebuilding of "order" is also a point.

The national consensus of ‘small people’ and ‘ruling power’

Studies on everyday life in the Nazi era explain what was difficult to explain theoretically clearly in the theory of fascism and totalitarian which analyzes the control system, the control group, the mechanism of repression. In other words, it will provide a passage that will allow you to more clearly understand how Auschwitz and Fashion's terrorism is possible, and why it was endured and partially supported. This provides a large clue where you can recognize where the support of the system comes from and what kind of everyday attitudes and expectations followed the plausible success of the "president" cheering. In a word 『Inside Nazi Germany』 makes possible a broader understanding and insight of Nazism.

Looking at various counter-terrorism policies proposed in Western society since 911 terrorism, it is modernized and citizens willingly willing to liberty to win the freedom won the hardship efforts and sacrifice for order and stability Can do. The reason why the Samcheong-dong Training Center could be sought under the Chun Doo-hwan administration was also possible because the citizens actively wished for order - passive agreement had been made. The Chun Doo-hwan administration justified their violence in the name of 'maintaining order' while cruelly suppressing the Gwangju Democratization Movement. Although the understanding and desire between 'small people' and ruling power' about the meaning and purpose included in the order and the means to acquire it act as contradiction to each other, the order can not be overlooked in modern society It is an important issue. 'Small people' support the government that maintains order for a stable life, the government must maintain order to maintain vested interests. When the Holocaust is 'small people' and the dominance system derives one agreed target of 'maintaining order', as the result of 'maintaining order' was greatly promoted by combining with racism It was just one of many possibilities that could be.

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2017년 7월 16일 일요일

[Book Review] In the legend that it stabbed the sword in the back... ~ Social policy in the Third Reich(Timothy W. Mason)

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He was ankle himself to the legend that he stabbed the sword in the back

(This article uses Google Translate 'Korean-->English')
The working class of the Nazi era is defined by strengthened exploitation and oppression, and in a sense the working class of that age can be defined by what has been imposed upon them. Nazi's social policy and propaganda incitement started with a denial of the existence of the working class. However, looking at it a bit closer, the special status of the working class is found in exactly that social policy and publicity. In other words, the working class existed too much as a threatening force after 1933. (in the Text)

Since the Nazi regime in 1933, Germany tries to do social and economic power to expand defense strength and expand the military industry in order to carry out Hitler's expansion policy. Still, the German economy had decided the invasive war, and during the years when it was preparing and during the years since the outbreak of the war, the German economy was also going around between "exhibition economy" and "economy of peace". At the same time, the aftereffects of halfway policy that was a peacetime economy was not too difficult at the same time, after the shortage of Poland advancement, the shortage of bombs and vehicle contents is too big, It was impossible even for warfare for several months. For this reason, Hitler 's invasion plan of Hitler' s planned in October 1939 had to abandon due to the general 's opposition that the armed state of the army was outrageously insufficient.

Timothy W. Mason, author of 『Social policy in the Third Reich: the working class and the national community(Sozialpolitik im Dritten Reich)』 said that this problem, that is, when the military supplies of the country that had prepared the war planned from ancient times actually waged war, Under circumstances where military supplies were scarce, we are looking for reasons why we had only had war with the internal contradiction of Nazi society, economic system. It is a conflict between the Nazis and the working class.

In 1933, the Nazis exercised power Japjamaja labor union and worker political parties and organizations such as communist and socialist forces were destroyed. The workers enough to seem as if the working class itself has completely disappeared are anthropomorphic thoroughly riding in accordance with the Nazi war plan. The workers had no choice but to watch the labor unions that spoke for their interests and social rights vaguely without angrily slashing themselves without any resistance at their eyes. Workers suffering from the fear of poverty and unemployment in the aftermath of the Great Depression did not even have a single finger, and the resistance organized due to intense survival competition could not dream.

But ironically, the situation Nazis pushed the military economy situation was reversed. In preparation for the war, full employment is carried out in a situation where the German economy is fully operational, and when the company is in a situation to support bribes to keep workers caught, the workers are forged camouflaged strikes, absenteeism, leave workshops , Sickness, carelessness during work, command disobedience etc passively resisted Nazis.

Nevertheless, the Nazis immediately hesitated to violently suppress workers by using Gestapo. From 1938 to 1941, when the 'Appearance Only War of War' was the victory of Germany in war, and still Britain came to the fore, and so the pressure and crisis of war were weak, There was nothing good to repress. In addition, the trauma of Hitler's arbitrary interpretation of the First World War was vivid. In other words, the cause of the First World War was not the overwhelming quantity of the Allied forces, but rather that the labor movement and the Jews betrayed the enemy in the midst of the war by the November Revolution.

In order to prepare for the war, the Nazis had to de-anthropomorphize the working class, to repress and reproach mercilessly, but on the other hand, if it is necessary to secure the worker's political loyalty, it is fundamental Because of the contradiction, Mason explains that the idea that society can afford the burden of war never existed. In other words, if you receive the social needs of every worker every time, trouble will arise in military production, mobilizing Gestapo etc. to respond violently, 'get stabbed in the back,' the danger will be increased. The fear of being able to welcome a knife such as the one which made Nazi impossible to introduce a poor exhibition economy. The exhibition economy was finally taken in 1943 when the war broke out and the charter was inclined to some extent. The Nazis greeted with the equal sword had become a dress that owned a contradiction burden if it had to secure the loyalty though it was necessary to exploit workers becoming a legitimate thing that was created by himself.

Principles of being able to win war only by Hitler's indomitable will can not find its utility in the conflict between the Nazis and the working class. Bread has the highest priority to rule the people, but as bread is filled, people's demands such as clothes and houses will increase. To some extent, this request can be bought and pushed down by publicity and thought education, but if these demands are tremendously ignored, in many cases riots and revolutions will occur, the government overthrows, the king May change. There was no worry of the Nazis at all. By the way, you can understand that Hitler disliked Communism so much. If the German communism does not take root, Nazis could secure the loyalty of more workers.

Hitler and Nazis, who seemed to have seemingly absolute powers, faced many obstacles and difficulties in preparing for war, and they seemed unable or unwilling to resolve these complex problems. It may be that the Nazis and the government have overtaken the problems that can not be neglected, and have given up on Hitler who has caused the war with gambling and fugitive agitation. Their radicality worked rather hard to solve the problems of the reality, but rather to make the utopia, which will be unfolded in the future, seem as if it had come to the front and to cover up and overcome the problems of reality. Perhaps when they took power, it might be too late to put a brake on the urgency to solve the problems of reality. Radicality was already the most powerful force to move and maintain the Nazi whirlpools, and the fact that Nazis themselves braked their urgency meant the annihilation of the vortex, the suicide of the Nazis. So they may be forced to go forward as if they were being chased by the god of death. However, the human being was sometime exhausted and could not win against the ideal god. Their destruction was not the internal betrayal of a knife hit behind the back, but the destined destiny of those who relied on everything for urgency.

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2017년 7월 9일 일요일

[Book Review] Multiple domination and instructor's improvisation command system brought ... ~ The Hitler State(Martin Broszat)

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'Hitler state' brought by multiple domination and instructor's improvising command system

(This article uses Google Translate 'Korean-->English')
The complex internal structure of the Nazi regime is based on the short, but subversive strength of the Nazi regime, the inflammatory nature of the Nazi ideology, the long-term social and psychosocial dislocation induced by the Nazi regime, the amorphous of the Nazi rule A contradiction between the appearance and an unusual expansion of its power. There is no simple framework to explain all this. (in the Text)

Germany from the handling of Hitler and Nazis followers power until the defeat can not be clearly explained in existing concepts such as dictatorship, totalitarianism, militarism, one-party rule. Although the absoluteism which is not irrelevant to the private influence of Hitler and the myth of 'great leader' appears more clearly as going to the latter part, how much it is, even if you have excellent individual talent, the ambassador of the country While looking at all jobs, you can not decide and command everything. In addition, Hitler did not have a delicate and delicate person, it was not an intellectual and logical insight but an incendation dependent on passionate emotions and intention of improvisation. So Hermann Wilhelm Göring, Martin Ludwig Bormann, Heinrich Luitpold Himmler who delegated full authority from Hitler, special organizations such as Nazi big people and Organization Todt, Schutzstaffel exercised power instead of Hitler and destroyed the law order, leaders Their willingness is represented, and these were able to penetrate the will of individuals under such name. By doing so, we can overcome the conservative centralized government dictatorship who was dissatisfied with the radical Nazi party and the excessive interference of the Nazis who was aiming at a global overthrow of the state and social order It was. In other words, while three powers such as one party of the Nazi Party, centralized government dictatorship and Hitler's private guidance absolute principle are in conflict with each other, they are both developing but mutually harmful , The competition and cooperation system was not intended by anyone The country that maintained unstable coexistence while holding in harmony is exactly the 'Hitler State'.

Martin Broszat is Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick, supported by traditional maintenance and management, at 『The Hitler State: The Foundation and Development of the Internal Structure of the Third Reich(Der Staat Hitlers: Grundlegung und Entwicklung seiner inneren Verfassung)』 Although the representative Nazi state book called the authority ordering state was unable to prevent decentralized Nazi powerfuls' own original will and exceptional control of special organization, but by the exceptional state, the administrative state It is a point that maintaining order as soon as the legal vacuum condition brought by special power is not enough to make the Nazis regime break down, so 'coexistence' of decentralized control with the centralized state Explain that it is the essence of Hitler country(as well as coexistence of legal unity and exceptional law).

Analyzing the complex interior of Nazism and the Third Reich while maintaining depth and refinement does not rely on superficial incident technology, it clearly logically describes the constitution of the Nazi regime and its structure The brochure book analyzed Nazis is a perfect choice for readers who wants to understand the relationship between Nazi and Hitler. Also, although the struggle against Nazis' ideology was Jewish, Marxism, pacifism, democracy opposed and concrete and clearly fixed, destroying the old order as such, the newly constructed utopian like The concept and goal of the new order It is not intentionistic interpretation biased towards ideology in that it is very ambiguous, but the structural functional analysis of the brotoch seems to stand out. The motive power and destructive power of Hitler countries is not derived from the Nazi ideology itself but rather the result of multiple inheritance of the Nazis regime and inefficient inefficiency of the leader, resulting from an inefficient continuous command system.

It is a difficult and hard book as it is an academic book, but it was not surprisingly boring. Recalling that there were not too many memories that read academic papers as ambitiously so much is a book that has no reason not to recommend such a field to liked readers. Many books that I did not get after reading but I could not understand everything Aun also as I was not able to understand what Nazism is, how it works, and how Hitler affects By exercising power, we could obtain rough concepts of how the Nazis regime was unstable but maintained. That alone is a big profit.

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2017년 6월 25일 일요일

[Book Review] A tool to support the 'arbitrary state' of the 'dual state' ~ The Gestapo(Rupert Butler)

A tool to support the 'arbitrary state' of the 'dual state'

(This article uses Google Translate 'Korean-->English')
Those dictatorships provide abundant evidence of the dangers regime's dangers and evils, especially putting a repressive secret police to strengthen it. The warning against it still remains strong as usual. (in the Text)

Okhrana in the Empire Russian era, since the revolution of October 1917, the Soviet Union Cheka and KGB, the third empire Gestapo(Geheime Staatspolizei) and after the Second World War following the Second World War, under the autocratic regime such as Stasi of East Germany, the hungry dog Following faithfully, like on the other hand, there are secret police that acted as a tool of violence to maintain the administration. It was the main task to detect and block these slight anti-systematic crimes, but utilize the ambiguity of 'anti-systematic' definition and interpretation to monitor the citizens' every move forward did. If anyone took over their fine mesh, composed of numerous sources and pushers, that person disappeared in the life of neighbors or friends, neither mice nor birds knew. And as I said, neighbors and friends also did not find the vanished person or the family dare. Since even the laws that stood before these were colorless, once they had to endure the severe torture with sounds that were hidden on them, for example sounds that were trapped in a humid cell lacking all light, food, etc and tried not to try . Still it was fortunate to survive without dying.

『The Gestapo: A History of Hitler's Secret Police 1933-45 by Rupert Butler』 This book is the book of the secret police Gestapo of the Third Empire, notoriously as the enforcer of the Holocaust. Prussia Attention Internal Prime Minister Hermann Wilhelm Göring began to political police in the Prussian state police to the idea, Gestapo was handed over to the helper leader Heinrich Luitpold Himmler, separated from the internal affairs administration and is institutionally independent. Hitler left himself directly to exercise a powerful power agency indispensable for maintaining the structure or to load him(Himmler etc.) to give personal loyalty to him. This made the 'power of the leader' existing outside the party and the state realized by positioning 'private leader - believer's relationship' as the structural element of the power organization, which is the behavior unique to Nazism . 'General Bureau of Construction of Tote Bag' and 'Armed Guards' are examples of special power authorities connected directly to Hitler separately from the Nazi party and the state, while also laying the foundation of the Nazi party and the state(reference: 『The Hitler State: The Foundation and Development of the Internal Structure of the Third Reich by Martin Broszat』)

Jewish Ernst Fraenkel, who was a labor law scholar in the Weimar Republic and acted as a trade union specialist and exiled to the United States in 1938, published his own book 『The Dual State: A Contribution to the Theory of Dictatorship』 to grasp that the Nazis state was 'Normative state'' and at the same time was 'Arbitrary state'. The normative state is a country indispensable for the Nazi regime to function capitalistically as a legalistic state based on the consistency with the legal norms, and the arbitrary nation is an exorbitant means(reference: 『The Hitler State: The Foundation and Development of the Internal Structure of the Third Reich by Martin Broszat』).

It was precisely an important device to suppress Gestapo as an 'Arbitrary state' against the Nazis' opposing power as an extrinsic means. They were able to steadily progress 'Final solution' of the Jewish problem as efficiently as a company planning and mass producing products.

Not only the Third Reich, Eastern Germany, the former Soviet Union, but all governments are secret institutions like South Korea's National Intelligence Service (NIS) that actively deal with intrigue and threats that fail to overthrow the national order I have one by one. But Butler says that the more government dictatorships, the more the way they use them, the more likely it will be tough harshness. Even without dare to go back to the Gestapo era, when you recall Park, Mr. Park, The Central Intelligence Agency at the time of the Doo Hwan dictatorship, and the National Security Planning Agency, you can know that the words are not mistaken. And when I talk about secret police story, I think of the harsh torture of curse which was done in various ways such as speaking for infinite creativity of human being who diverges in any field. However, the point that I care about the real unbearable point is the fact that high characters are family members, and sometimes they are the fathers of families who put up to their children. When these counselors are completed, they go back home like any employee and work hard so that they touch a beautiful wife and a cute child and dine together. How can such a thing be possible? How can you forget to wash your blood easily like this? Can we consider tantalizing as a taste like other things that are routinely repeated even by insulting one person and torturing them?

J. M. Coetzee's 『Waiting for the barbarians』 has been tortured "and" I seriously ask a person who tortured me (in the same sense as I hold a doubt) a question.

"If this question seems to be an assumption, please forgive me.How can you eat food after you handle it? It is a possible trip? I would like to ask this question I would like to ask the people of the same category as the executioners ... I just want to understand ... I understand the world you live in I'm trying hard to imagine how you breathe in and eat and live everyday.However, it is that I confuse you! I am talking to yourself like this If I was that person, the feeling that my hand was too dirty, let me suffocate ... ... " (in teh Text)

The question was the same as my expectation as to the answer of the person who received the wonder.

"You, this crazy fucking guy's girl! Do not go too far! Wherever you go go get it!"
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2017년 5월 28일 일요일

[Book Review] It starts with a far-away dream of human beings as space travel... ~ V-2: A Combat History of the First Ballistic Missile(T. D. Dungan)

Rocket development that started in a far-away dream of human beings as space travel

(This article uses Google Translate 'Korean-->English')
If we conclude that the development of the many breakthrough technologies we have accomplished is the result of weapons development for war will we deny the fact that humans possess a wonderful soul Is it? (int the Text)

At the time of World War II, there was a new weapon called V-2, the first ballistic missile in Germany. As one North Korea is mobilizing all the national strength and developing one ballistic missile system can wear multiple nuclear warheads, in many cases it has huge destructive power to pick up the extinction of mankind There. But is it a terrible performance from Jinyeoggi compared to such a modern missile system? Or from the stigma of weapons of defeated nation? V-2, which Germany developed at the time of World War II, was not so widely known as a weak body of innovative technology just to confuse many experts at the time, and experts A historical evaluation also dominated critical criticism which was a comprehensive waste of time and labor, resources.

Like the harsh history assessment, was V-2 a bad weapon even in the actual war? On the contrary, 『V-2: A Combat History of the First Ballistic Missile by T. D Dungan』 is not so miserable as V-2's success got so rude, Explain that the military's strategic plan had a major impact.

From September 1944, on the coast of the Netherlands, the missiles launched to the UK were about 1,300 legs, of which more than 500 rockets each dropped in other parts of London's suburbs. The remainder do not cause serious damage to the Allied Powers as a criticism of history later, misfire due to various malfunctions, explosion in the air and so on. A total of 2,724 people lost their lives in the official statistics of life damage and 6,467 people were seriously injured. I think that many people were attacked by the weapons of V-1 and V-2 only in the UK, but in fact it was different. Antwerp, which was used as a major supply base of the Allied forces after the Normandy landing operations, received more V-2 attacks than London as V-2 more than 1,600 drops in total for 6 months. It was over 30,000 people who might be casualties.

More than anything, the real power of the V-2 attack has evoked an infinite fear in the attacked citizens. V-2 suddenly attacked and could not take such measures as air raid warnings, and at that time the Allied Army technology, a missile falling from the atmosphere at an astonishing rate to break through the speed of sound I could not take any measures to protect. A citizen who was tired of helplessness and fear of having to accept without notice, had no choice but to send an uneasy day as long as a day wishing for a day.

Besides that, V-based weapons gave us a gap where Germany could breath for a moment from the unrestricted bombing of the Allies. The Allied Army, sarcastical that the New York Times finally succeeded in attracting Allied bombers to another place at last, had the potential of V-based weapons before V-based weapons were actually deployed An enormous amount of bombardment was carried out by "Crossbow operations" who try to crush a given given threat. Still, V-1 (the first cruising missile), the V-2 attack, or "penguin strategy" started as scheduled as if laughing at the allies' efforts. Even after that, the Allies forced to find a detachable launch point of V-2 and try to rush to destroy, but there was no big effect.

'V' is a weapon of V-1 and V-2, not 'Victory', meaning victory, but rather as taken from the Nazi Propaganda Goebbels in the national radio speech, taken from 'vergelten' It is 'V'. In other words, under the will of the Nazi fanatical destruction, it was made for indiscriminate slaughter V type weapon. Since Hitler died and German surrender and so on, the vast number of V-2 related materials and personnel engaged in the development of V-2 moved to the Allied Forces and V-1 cruised like Tomahawk Missiles, V-2 led to the development of tactical ballistic missiles like infamous Scud missiles. In addition, the V-2 related technology succeeded Apollo exploration on the foundation of the first step of space travel, which is a long-standing idea of ​​humanity

The former rocket was the first button to replace the dream of space traveling that revealed only science fiction novels to reality. However, in the absence of war, it would be a systematic, continuous support and research for space travel and space exploration, which was a faraway dream of humanity. Because Germany was developing V weapons and in the US Dr. Goddard was also studying rockets, but since the rocket at that time in the United States was underestimated for military purposes, nobody It was because he had no interest.

As the authors pointed out, humans proved their ways of creativity, cunning, and brutality in war. Ironically, the technology developed to kill human life efficiently and destroy civilization deviates from the hostile goal of the technology, for example for those who are lucky like us death and destruction Gave us convenience, no. Whether you see real people who have not abandoned nuclear weapons yet, even if human beings are selfish, the soul alone is pure as crystal. The controversy is truly an excuse.

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2017년 5월 22일 월요일

[Book Review] 'War of attrition', was that inevitable? ~ The First World War(Peter Jukes etc)

'War of attrition', was that inevitable?

(This article uses Google Translate 'Korean-->English')
Medical technology to save lives in all participating countries has greatly developed, but the technology of war to kill people also developed rapidly as well. (in the Text)

War is a test site of violence and madness that emanates meaning war itself, and advanced technology, cruelly due to the fact that it is the driving force to develop and realize the technology, the historical third From the standpoint of a person, there is no choice but to excite. Not only does First World War do not deviate considerably from such facts, but here it is not disgraceful such as the first world war in human history, the first total warfare, the first war beyond the number of battle casualties soldiers Some of the titles also took on rats.

Even without knowing that First World War had started as a means of achieving the political · diplomatic objectives of each country, the battle became intense, many casualties occurred, people leave the control of reason The awakened blind, which is dominated by anger and hatred going up, has become awakened, and the war has become a monster with huge attraction like a black hole as a war itself. This war was not a means, it itself was the purpose, evaporating all the boiling blood of all the participating countries. As the physical laws of the universe made a black hole which can not escape any existence of the universe including light, the history the human race and madness gathered has made a whirlpool of warfare.

Why did the First World War be driven by a war of attrition, a long war, which destroyed all the spiritual and material energies of the participating countries?

The First World War was largely divided into the West Battlefield, the Eastern Front, the Mediterranean Front, etc., among which the greatest ground was taken on the Western Front where the direction of winning and losing of the First World War was determined 『First World War: the War to End All Wars by Peter Jukes, Geoffrey Hickey, Michael Simkins』 The reason why First World War has prolonged to a War of attrition is that it is not necessarily inevitable that only the initiator is a strategic target with ignorance of tactical premature and total warfare of general and officers who performed duties at each front It takes the idea of ​​man-made disaster that brought about the confusion between tactical goals and lack of preparations for national warfare ability.

Even though contemporary weapons such as trains, flame radiators, poison gas, airplanes, etc. have appeared, as the means of transportation was dominated by pre-modern cattle, horses, dogs, etc., a considerable proportion, each wire There was a pre-modern element still in the concepts of the general and officer tactics and war who commanded. In this way, in the transient period beyond Modern Warfare, the old-fashioned way of thinking has an adverse effect on the above-mentioned parts and tactical flexibility suitable for new weapons, and in the battle it is natural to see the infantry sacrifice naturally Brought the number of casualties and injuries. Furthermore, the national burden of the first total warfare which mobilized all the competence of the nation called for confusion and insufficiency in terms of war support and dissemination such as ammunition, food, conscription, transportation, so the participating countries contradict war I had no choice but to take him.

The above immaturity and insufficiency of spread is also that Britons can not maintain the momentum of attack early in the offensive until midnight and bring chronic problems that frequently miss opportunities to skip decision strikes, We made a lot of casualties and prisoners in vain for the progress of the strategy. The German army missed the strategic goal of Japnaura former tactical opportunity encountered encountered in an unexpected situation. In other words, I missed the definitive opportunity of multiple times that made a mistake in incurring a great loss by pursuing a small profit.

Finally, is it because the German army is an alliance army? It is only on the Allied Forces side to investigate the records left by the participating soldiers and the citizens of the participating countries who want to convey the disaster of war more realistically and lively. There is no difference in the hardships and sufferings experienced by citizens and soldiers of all countries who participated in the war in allied forces and allied forces, but unfortunately, this book is such that such details are inclined to Allied side ing. Even though there is no eyesore's prejudice and blurring in this book, I like to see the record left by the allied soldiers and the records left by the citizens of the allies together From the perspective of comparative history, better results come out It is unsatisfactory whether there was nothing left. Still, this book, written by three authors who outlined the origin and results of the outbreak of the First World War, is an irreplaceable decent book in the First World War Tutorial.

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2017년 4월 6일 목요일

[Book Review] Madness that exploded with the fantasy 'fear' ~ Hitler. Die Deutschen und ihr Führer(Rafael Seligmann)

Madness that exploded with the fantasy 'fear'

(This article uses Google Translate 'Korean-->English')
It was a common emotion that was able to explain Hitler's charisma, a ring connecting himself and the German people, 'fear of modernity'. (in teh Text)

In the proverb 'A stag at bay is a dangerous foe'. Because of fear of a strong opponent, threats and intimidation which were only words at the outset after the atrophy are actually to the jaw of death, if it is about this it will die or run to a stunning blow. People as well. When a strong man eats parodies of the weak, it does not endure some of the abbreviations which are not strictly reluctantly stamped, as opposed to whether they had some reason or not, instigating their fellows and causing a rebellion. It's a desperate feeling that has lost already nothing to lose, so its anger and explosive power can not be predicted. Therefore, when colonies and slavery are operated, not only the whip but also the rebellion which arranges the carrot so much can be prevented beforehand, the utility can be maximized. Depending on the degree of accumulation, there are people who skillfully use the 'fear' that can respond with large explosive power with their charisma so there is no immediate difference and it is the main criminal Hitler of the Second World War.

Germany, which modern reasons could not expand perfect power due to historical geographical factors, like Hitler, was fascinated by the fear of modern times. The defeat of World War I and the national trauma and economic crisis brought about by the Treaty of Versailles lead to weakening of ethnic self-consciousness, and successive failures of the democratic party here are aimed at the democracy in which German citizens are representative products of modernization I turned my back.

The lack of modern reasons in political • diplomatic • economic • social internal and external crisis led to the lack of ability to analyze and judge their situation themselves. This was the same for Hitler. They turned all causes of their suffering into external concern as a faint and weak person turns the cause of the failure too easily into the blame of others. I tried to find the answer in nationalistic myths even in ancient times that left behaviors to uncertain emotions rather than cold reason. At this time, Hitler who was a contact soldier of the First World War, the only cause of the misery the German people suffer is the catch of the Jews in the hands to tell the staff to let the masses who the crowd wanted to hear By doing so, they could be easily embarrassed by those conspiracies, and they were able to rule over the anger of the public while gaining their pleasure.

Hitler is reborn as a German rescuer, both in name and in fact, by presenting not only the cause but also further solutions to it. Hitler believed that the Jews would dominate Germany and the world and could easily inject that faith into the conspiracy theory already through their excellent incitement and speeches ability to the wet masses. Hitler who has extremely driven fear of Jews governing Germany must first take action before Jewish rule begins, that is, to defend the war with defense acts to fight against Jewish conspiracy I was able to prepare the optimum condition that the Holocaust can be executed. The fear of the Jews led to the more thorough Holocaust of the Nazis. They were afraid of the revenge of these surviving Jews.

Hitler is reborn as a German rescuer, both in name and in fact, by presenting not only the cause but also further solutions to it. Hitler believed that the Jews would dominate Germany and the world and could easily inject that faith into the conspiracy theory already through their excellent incitement and speeches ability to the wet masses. Hitler who has extremely driven fear of Jews governing Germany must first take action before Jewish rule begins, that is, to defend the war with defense acts to fight against Jewish conspiracy I was able to prepare the optimum condition that the Holocaust can be executed. The fear of the Jews led to the more thorough Holocaust of the Nazis. They were afraid of the revenge of these surviving Jews.

It was because the German people accepted the Holocaust and supported Hilaire until that day when Hitler died, because Hitler stimulated "fear" and "bread and employment" needed for survival. They set up grounds to be able to blame all the misfortunes they suffered and also set up legitimate opportunities to express anger that was suppressed by the national slump. Furthermore, given existing democratic political parties could not solve "bread and employment" until the beginning of World War II, wash away the humiliation of the defeat of World War 1 with overwhelming victory Set the nation's pride Hitler was a hero and no difference to the German citizen because it increased it up.

『Klimakriege(Harald Welzer)』 is a case of climate disasters, when importing climate refugees into Western society, while cherishing how they deal with it, examples of history Presented the massacre of the Holocaust and Rwanda as. We need to pay attention to the fact that we chose violence as a defensive measure due to 'fear' that both heterogeneous peoples will harm their stability and safety.

The 1938 Evian refugee conference dealing with Jewish immigration problems also failed and there are no signs that the Middle East and African refugee problems will also be resolved at present. Climate change will not be a problem that can be polished even in Western European society, so the worse survival condition is that Western European society is more sensitive to refugee problems because climate change will be less challenging than in developing countries It can also be made to react. The movie <Children Of Men (2006)> is very well depicted how Britain handles incoming refugees, but as it is trying to reproduce this movie In the UK, refugee problems emerge and are ongoing to the break sheets. And as we saw in the Katrina situation, the disaster paralyzes the reason of civilization.

Finally, climate refugees that climatically suddenly climate disasters are pushing dictums, only if threats to their 'bread and employment' are connected not only with the threat of only words but also with the problem of survival, that 'fear' Is abstract, as the Holocaust took the case when it approached tightly with a substantial and existential problem beyond the line to the meaning of the words, as the Rwandan massacre was like Western Europe society tried to solve the situation We will have no choice but to reconsider 'violence'. 『Hitler. Die Deutschen und ihr Führer』, a lesson learned by Hitler, warns that the cultures and reasons that modern civilization boasts, and universal ethics and morals stand and collapse before 'bread and employment'.

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