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[book review] Capitalism has never managed food efficiently until now! ~ Let Them Eat Junk(Robert Albritton)

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Capitalism has never managed food efficiently until now!

(This article uses Google Translate 'Korean-->English')

The largest scientific experiment ever?

The other day, the survey result that the blood mercury concentration of Koreans in the news is more than three times more than the United States, 5 times higher than Germany was reported. Although heavy metals such as mercury are mainly absorbed through marine products, silk heavy metals are not the only harmful substances that humans live and are unwilling to eat. Indeed, chemical substances that we absorb mainly in eating and drinking, ramen, sweets, processed foods such as hamburgers and colas are also accumulated in the human body and may become time bombs when they do not know when they will develop an explosion . If you are lucky you will enjoy the rope, but if you do not get along, you can react with other chemicals decades later and suffer from fatal and painful diseases like cancer.

Various chemical substances are used for the taste and shape of processed foods that are readily available in general fast food restaurants and scattered stores in the surroundings, but when such chemical substances are used There are few substances that have been definitely tested as to what effect they will take if taken for a long time. According to the policy director of the Environment Protection Fund, Rick Smith, "We are the guinea pig who participated in the largest, uncontrolled scientific experiment in history".

Absurdity surrounding 'food'

For what purpose did we jump in a fierce competition that is not different from modern slaves? One of the reasons is to live long in health by eating good food. Some of you answer to this answer whether people are so simple, is there anyone who can buy here without eating rice? A meal is the best happiness for a person and it can be an indicator of the status and authority of the person who eats.

So why do we continue to eat bad food for the body with such hard-earned money? Why do we have to leave the most fundamentally essential food to humans rather than consumer's health to a cruel market economy that gives priority to corporate profits? Why do companies adequately fulfill toxicity tests of chemical substances added to foods consumed by consumers? Also, why does the state leave such a situation as it is, even the scientists who do research to contribute to the prosperity of mankind will stand by the company, not the consumer, to defend the tobacco? On the other hand, on the other hand, wherever you go, you can easily obtain various foods, people eat a lot and throw away so much food, they are obese and overweight in food richness To struggle. Meanwhile, WHO estimates that the population of 3 billion people worldwide suffer from starvation and other nutritional imbalances, and every five seconds in the 21st century one of five children under five years will die of starvation How should we believe the fact?

After World War II, food is already enough to cultivate the population of the whole world to capitalize and concentrate chemical fertilizers and agricultural production, but actually the distribution of food is not that fair value. When farmers and workers who produce food are hungry, nutritional imbalances, pesticides that are harmful to various human bodies (use was prohibited in most developed countries, but in poor countries it is used for the benefit of multinational corporations So, who is to blame the reality bothered by illness?

Capitalism has never managed food efficiently until now!

Robert Albritton's 『Let them eat junk: How Capitalism Creates Hunger and Obesity』 describes the irrationality and inconsistency of the agriculture and food supply of the capitalist regime which simultaneously produced hunger and obesity in overflowing food. Now, the limits and problems of capitalism that began to appear gradually will be limited to silk food, but since the most important thing to people is more food than anything else, many of the subjects raised in this book The problem of can not be handed over in spite of itself. Also, do you sell a discount at a supermarket and the eyes will break much affordable food? In other countries, every 5 seconds the child will starve and die, so it really can not be believed. When I pick out such facts, it seems that I was truly blessed that people born in Korea, it was born during the richest period of history. Because this richness is not eternal.

The Albritton claim is definitive about such a problem. He argues that capitalism has never managed food efficiently so far. Along with that, the basic condition of the food system necessary for the prosperity of mankind is produced so as to minimize damage to the ecology of the earth and enhance the health of the environment for future generations It is worthy to be offered to each individual the superior quality and sufficient amount of food produced in this way and that our own identity and the possibilities of life we ​​can eat and drink I will explain the fundamental conditions of the food system as it has its roots. Along with that, capitalism criticizes real problems and their causes without mercy, considering only the interests of the company, rather than the health and benefits of consumers.

In this book, junk foods created by indifference of capitalism are sustainable current food systems collateralized by the future, absurdity of capitalism where the poor become more poor, terrorism where food is a weapon, capitalism Modern people who are addicted to starvation and obesity, sugar and meat, and food additives, agricultural workers are poor, only to the miserable reality, the current food system to destroy the environment, power is more powerful than liberal democracy It can be a factory that revolves and dominates the world we live in, such as a strong company, and it is exposed to sharp criticism about the truth of capitalism. And also short-term and long-term plans to overcome the crisis of the current food system are also explored Albritton as it is. However, looking at his countermeasure, if I dare to say my idea, the doubts and worries over that way, whether realistically it is really possible, is too idealistic is outweighed. Little capitalism is deeply bitten into us, not only there is no end to the desire and desire of a person, but also the desire that does not draw deeply to the potential desire is made and garnished fashion and sell goods Capitalism It will be easy for the meeting to come down from the authority of God.

The interest of the food company is not the consumer's health but the consumer's wallet!

In fact, as anyone knows, the instinct for a company to pursue profits is still the same. And the indecisive attitude of the consumers who follow the enterprise in a way without thinking is also a problem. However, the important problem here is that consumers who do not get enough information are not simply wasting money, but consumption activities that are indispensable for their health.

We work hard to eat better food, earn money, but in the end, we can not escape from the temptation of advertising, convenience, sweet and oily taste addicted to long-term health can hurt the food or fast food Fill three pieces. Food companies, especially those who know that eating habits are not hereditary but are determined by environmental factors when they are young, such as nurturing, market more aggressively to young children. How much do parents know about the food they eat and how they cope appropriately for the health of their family? Although obesity is increasing in Korea, we think that obesity is simply overgrown by eating too much. But in fact, few people know that nutritious hunger can be seen by people who are fattened by junk food. The fact that junk food is high in calories and nutritional value is bad (so the body needs more food to supplement its deficient nutrients, and this vicious cycle eventually leads to obesity) Is it reflecting.

A food company and a tobacco company are totally forcing individuals to pay a huge social cost which may occur due to ingestion of low quality food or smoking, It fulfills their desires. Recently, there are also donations to charities as well as charities to beautify the corporate image, but ultimately, such things are highly intelligent for the enterprise's ultimate corporate interests It's just a strategy. A long time ago, the advertising company in the United States has been studying about the influence of advertisement on the human brain, as it used to use television in the communism brainwashing education in the communist society, Consumers who live in the flood of living will live without thinking anything, it will become a good bait for the company. Many consumers hit their wallets, not zombies to eat human flesh, while becoming capitalistic zombies that consume and accept loans when they are short.

Is capitalism alternative possible?

Historically, capitalism has been overwrapped by universal solutions for communism, experiencing the Cold War era. I believe that capitalism at the time believes that it can solve all the problems of that era and still many people believe it or not, in systems other than capitalism, I have not even thought about it. However, after reading 『Let them eat junk: How Capitalism Creates Hunger and Obesity』, I am convinced that many ripples will occur in such an easy and conservative idea.

In what way, it is clear that communism in which resources are allocated by necessity is theoretically an ideal society. In such a world, everyone can have what they need in the same way, or both, so it is a very fair society. But people will never own enough resources as they need them. This is the point that people differ from other animals. Even if you have money that you can not write up until you die by calling the ship, you continue to eat and drink, continue to board the other people and try to collect property. So even in the future far away, as long as the present human beings have been cleaned cleanly and new human beings are not appearing, the more complete and perfect communist society is impossible as the human beings who have already dyed the joy of reason. Also, it has not been hidden in history already that it is impossible to morally improve people. Communism in the history of mankind will remain only in memories of the distant old pristine communist society where people did not yet know the concept of reason.

People have the shortage and stupidity that people have, noticing quickly the disasters caused by the potential unremitting greedy to everyone God's life, justice, equality and asceticism, a variety of perfection Although it imitated the appearance of the state, even its new was used to satisfy politics and power, desire. This is also incomplete but the capitalist regime is the same.

However, what matters is not just to criticize the problems of capitalism, but to recognize imperfections and inequality of capitalism for the future of our descendants and human beings and to improve It is. Criticism and dissatisfaction of redistribution of wealth has already been raised since the early years of capitalism, and many capitalist countries have been making efforts to improve while increasingly introducing socialist policies against this. It is true that capitalism has also changed, evolved and changed significantly from the initial capitalism at the time of the Industrial Revolution. Nevertheless, the imbalance and inequality of the departed part of capitalism has not disappeared, but rather the gap between rich and poor has been expanded to the issue of the gap between rich and poor among states. The problem of exploitation has also expanded to a global problem between state-to-state, large-scale enterprises and the poor, beyond the regional and personal problems between capitalists and workers. The site of exploitation Marx still witnessed in the 19th century remains as it is, living in developed countries and big companies, people deserving to live a little, still alive around the world, and slaves of children of poor countries The conversion also disappeared.

Cheap food and cheap consumer consciousness pays cost

Everything comes at a cost. As we bought cheap at the supermarket, was there any idea that someone would pay that price? Everyone knows finely that wages and work environments in China, Africa and South American farms, and other developing countries are very poor, but again we are in other countries. Have you forgotten the tragic death of labor agitator Jeon Tae Il yet? Everyone also implicitly agree with the motto of all capitalist and capitalist states, "Apres moi le Deluge!" Originally written by Marx in the 1860's. As in the past Communist revolution, when all these problems can not be resolved unequivocally, it is good to introduce this earth back into the flame of the revolution together with new ideas to replace capitalism. It may be that a revolution will probably come from all the countries that have been exploited, not urban civil revolution as in the past.

If so, you tried imagining once as well. A new world that is new to another system that comes after capitalism and democracy. Just as it was difficult to imagine a society in which the people living under the Joseon Dynasty and the medieval feudal system were released from democracy and identity that capitalism and the king over the vote of the people are liberated, It will not be easy to imagine a new system, after being buried in capitalism and coming to the next world. However, someday the second Marx that brings such a pioneering new revolutionary idea is born in the world. If you have that, what kind of system would you like to say? What is the ideal society you say? What kind of society is the peaceful and happy society you dream about?

For those who like the economy like me, the parts that explain the abstract capitalism of the beginning of this book were hard to understand for those like cows. And it is not a book that pages move lightly overall. While showing each contradictory reality we live, we showed an inconvenient truth that we all forgot, no, I wanted to forget. So you can give discomfort to readers. But if you are a reader who wants to know the truth, you do not expect how uncomfortable or uncomfortable about that part. Although it is not too light but readable content, if you think deeply and understand it and go beyond it, we live in a thorough capitalist society at the center of consumption understand the world more accurately and judge it correctly We have enough knowledge to help. After reading this book, I will seriously accept Albritton's firm assertiveness that "will it be a matter to deposit basic necessities such as food at a fickle market price?"



[Book Review] Was Google good? After that? ~ Googled(Ken Auletta)

book cover

Was Google good? After that?

(This article uses Google Translate 'Korean-->English')
Will Google use its power to unduly control other markets? Just as MS used the advantage of the operating system to make Netscape helpless? "I am satisfied if it only faithfully fulfills the mission that Google becomes an 'honest broke'." In the case of Google other than me, that would be horrible. He revealed that Google was worried that he certainly did not know whether I was there. "If you are able to block certain sites that appease China, you will not be able to block certain sites that calm a powerful advertiser?" In this way, Tangled with the problem of power supply. If you double-click with Google, you collect huge consumer data like a mountain. (in the Text)

'Google' which achieved democratization of information and knowledge

If you are an Internet user, you do not dare 'Googling', I guess Google is the self-evident fact of the world's search engine share. Thanks to Google's innovative search engine, users can sail victims of the Internet to find information at high speed without wasting time. Unlike a portal site where advertisements sticky hangs, miscellaneous links and somehow suffer, it seems strongly to feel that users are trying to confine users to the framework they set, Google's homepage has no small image. There is really no waste and it is beautiful. Here, the will of the Google founder (Larry Page and Sergey Brin) who thinks that banner advertisement does not offer the best experience to the user is reflected, but on the one hand, the user needs as soon as possible It includes user-centered Google philosophy that searches for information and destinations (as opposed to portal sites where users want to capture forever), and who wants to get out of Google. Thanks to this, the user can freely navigate the sea Internet of information comfortably and promptly regardless of what the user is.

It is no exaggeration to say that Google's excellent search engine has removed the walls that conflict when we find information and knowledge, thereby democratizing information and knowledge. Google's search results are self-portraits of information and knowledge that is a cultural heritage of mankind, reflecting our society, and showing what kind of topics the generation is caught. To companies competing with Google, inconvenient truth, Google, which we got on the Internet democratization icon, gained confidence in the users. But do not overlook the fact that 'crowds' wisdom' that Google follows is not an absolute rule to quickly screen good quality information. In other words, it can be queried and it is not a useful and useful information. If 'crowds' wisdom' and algorithmic news gathering of machines can replace existing journalism, if Google is the only user, it will be a cause of distress necessary for progress of civilization and the development of democracy It is a dangerous idea that may lead to the degeneration of Homo sapiens, if it decreases the existence value of intellectuals to do.

Concerns about Google relying on advertising revenue

After all, the Internet is Google and Google is firmly established on the Internet, but now it is impossible to do anything on the Internet without going through Google. Although Google has eliminated the barriers to finding information and knowledge, Google's monopoly has left users locked in an opaque tunnel called Google, where light and darkness coexist. If Google monopolizes the access path to information and knowledge, it can determine what information Google will see for its users. This is a problem that can not be overlooked as the trajectory of life changes and life may change as people acquire some information as they live. In fact, Google blocked certain sites at the request of the Chinese government and the German government. Google's enthusiasm, who tried to run only towards the future that we wanted to accomplish, and Google's far-reaching ambitions that were afraid of other companies. These things were a moment of compromise with the huge wall of reality.

This is not the only moment when you abandon your pride and compromise with reality. Page and Brin did not enjoy reading novels, watching movies and concerts, and despising games like golf which takes a long time. They regarded the most efficient use of time than anything more than anything else and could not stand the waste of time badly. So Google's main sources of income, AdWords and AdSense, also placed users in a way that users do not use the Internet, and blocked pop-ups that hinder the Internet voyage on Google Toolbar. However, Google's acquisition, advertising on YouTube who has been unable to keep the deficit for a long time is forced and consumes the user's time. Users have to watch advertisements for the first few seconds at the beginning of the video, sometimes it is necessary to watch intermediate advertisements around 1 minute depending on the time. The user must settle the "YouTube Red" which is a paid service for viewing advertisements or no advertisements.

As advertising is the main source of income, this degree of change as Google is probably natural. Here, changes in Google's perception that advertisements are not obstacles to irritate unconditional users and may be useful information if there is "relevance" with the information and knowledge the user is looking for I am playing a part. The important thing is that Google must make use of the ever-increasing size of dinosaurs, and also have to win over the growth pressures. For that, creative innovation needs to be continually backed up as we have done so far. Internet information is a belief in the Internet revolution that everyone is free to use it for free, and no one can deny that Google's beliefs gradually tighten Google from the pressure of growth and revenue . If Google is relying solely on advertising as it is now, without changing the attitude that "we will need to pay for our services to use our services," strong advertisers Blocking a specific site or there is a material that the advertiser's breath severely acts on the search result like Korean portal site neighbor (Currently, in Google search results, advertisements related to keywords occasionally It is exposed at the top and bottom of the page). In this way, the trust that users have received so far beyond the line that should not be exceeded will be lost in the morning, or gradually lost.

However, nobody knows where the tipping point is to trigger such a thing. In light of Google's ambition to overthrow the world, it may be inevitable for Google's beginnings to change with the changes in the world or with the winds they have created. But the world can not accept all the changes, and so do the users. Every change contains positive and negative. I do not know whether a certain degree of change will be the last marginal route that does not lose user's trust while maintaining the current innovation, and at which point the change will serve as a tipping point to break the trust that has accumulated over the years.

'Big Data' Google, privacy invasion?

Let's talk about 'big data' now. In the future, if 'Big Brother' is born, the possibility is the best subject and the current Google. The amount of data that Google collected for about 20 years since its founding is very large. When it comes to the fact 'Internet = google', we give Google value every time we do a search. Here, a huge advertiser's data is merged. Advertisers range from small businesses to large companies. They are more likely to have data that Google does not have, such as credit card usage statements, call logs, names and addresses, education and experience. As mentioned earlier, if Google has 'relevance' like keyword advertisement, advertisement is regarded as one useful information. This will naturally lead to the logic that exposes the data to another location, enhances relevance, and benefits the user. Being a user's benefit will increase the probability that users will click on ads or purchase items, which will soon lead to an increase in Google's advertising revenue. Also, the increase in Google's advertising revenue means immediate increases in advertiser revenue. Is not something creepy?

Besides that, the data collected by Google can also be used for data mining technology, which advertisers combine with their ownership data to infer user's needs and behavior patterns. This brings enormous benefits to advertisers. In the era of full-scale data mining, the data that Google has is the future of all advertisers, it will be hopeful. It is clear even if you do not see that the needs of advertisers who want to press Google in various ways and want more data are amplified.

Google's data is sensitive enough to sensitive users to privacy and privacy concerns, but worse is Blein, one of Google's founders. "Do users trust what we do? That 's more important than privacy. ". As Ken Auletta, the author of 『Googled: The End of the World As We Know It』 says Bryn's idea is that if we believe in Google, there is no reason to fear they might abuse our data. But we know what kind of destructive ending Hitler brought to the German people who believed in him. We also know how many politicians, elected through elections, have gained public support and trust, and how they have put cold water on the people 's expectations. The pages of the innocent enthusiasm of engineer and Blein's perversion are indifferent to how easily someone does not understand their intentions, like Oleta's assessment, and are not easily measured. Here we can not help but mention the sharp question of Marc Rotenberg, president of The Electronic Privacy Information Center. "Why should Google collect that information?"

So far, Google was good?

Until now, Google's slogan, "Do not be evil," has been generally accepted as positive for users, although Google's competing companies may look like demons. The trust that users send to Google reflects the fact that Google still dominates the impression that it is good. Even so, the fact that Google is good now does not guarantee that Google will forever be good. Nevertheless, it is clear that Google is technologically and morally innovative as compared to other large corporations. However, successful companies have often shown that Google's idealism, which believes it has a duty to try to make the world a better place, is getting weaker in the face of reality. It's still likely that Google will be good for the time being because the founder Page and Bryn are still young and alive and show their passion. However, when two people leave the world and two senior staff members who have led Google since the beginning have left the world one by one, how will Google change? Do users still trust the phrase then? Is the colossal data they collect and own are still safe? At that time, I am already dead and I do not have to worry too much.

It seems that you have to trust Google in a position to depend entirely on Google. It is like a resident who has to live next to a poor nuclear power plant. Fearing that something might explode on a daily basis, you can just forget the existence of a nuclear power plant, or you can trust yourself completely in the power plant and deviate yourself from the nightmare of daily heartbreak. Currently, there is no alternative to Google, and there is no way to escape Google. On the other hand, Google's monopoly seems to be safe. If the second Google appears and competes with Google to erode Google's advertising revenue, so if Google is in the biggest crisis since its inception, Google should use the data it has collected so far to increase ad revenue and appease advertisers. It will be difficult to withstand pressure.


As you can see from the fact that you left a huge review statement earlier, 『Googled』 is a book that makes Google think a lot about the future of the Internet and makes many questions a question . This book explains how the Google founder's page and the beliefs of Brin have settled as a culture of Google and how such culture provided innovation, the passion and creativity of the Google empire, so Describing such things that, despite many projects failing, you conquered the world with only search engines, and gained full support and trust of users despite failed projects. Also, the author has not lost critical view. After the founding of Google, it was a time when the Internet revolution had just begun. The history of Google is a big part of the history of the Internet, as it is Google that adds the explosive power of a nuclear warhead to its power. On the other hand, Google's growing process of innovating and embracing the digital media world was an inevitable battle with existing media forces. In that sense, this book deals with the upheaval of the digital media world.

As a Google user, once you've read this book, you may find that some people have a stronger sense of trust in Google, or some doubtful. Unless we are in anyway in a position that we can not leave Google, and if we do not have the talent to explode innovation that goes beyond Google, we should not be falling into the bane of change (If there is no person who enjoys retirement, however, recently the faisens do not do about the Internet?) It would be wise to remain a man. It is the way we communicate with the world, living in a time of digital revolution that can measure its power in the distant future. The world is changing and it is also a process of searching for your seat as an individual in the harsh Internet world where you can survive if it does not change.



[Book Review] Measure the feasibility and possibility of sustainable capitalism ~ Capitalism as if the World Matters(Jonathon Porritt)

Measure the feasibility and possibility of sustainable capitalism.

(This article uses Google Translate 'Korean-->English')
Everything is determined based on the Earth system and the law that lives viable within its limits. The pursuit of the possibility of biophysical survival can not be compromised, it is an absolute prerequisite. (In the text)

Countries that have mercilessly exploited nature and become rich on GDP, the Earth Happiness Index HPI (Happy Planet Index) records extremely low numbers. In the HPI list, compared to the fact that many South American countries, which seems to be behind the West Europe economically, occupied the top, along with economic growth, Western European countries that they have prided themselves as a driver of the civilization of mankind That was not the case. Capitalism Ye Chan Rongja's assertion that economic growth brings happiness, has already become obsessive, continually supports the capitalist economic growth system living by eating people dissatisfaction and misfortune , There is a urgent situation in which it is only necessary to consider the limits of the ecosystem.

Nevertheless, economic growth remains important to billions of people in the world who do not secure minimal material benefits for human life. Instead of importing happiness for radical people, this current capitalist system, which is responsible for climate change, the gap between rich and poor, economic exploitation, environmental destruction, and the depletion of nature, which constantly plagues the human race, hit the limit, so this I can not tolerate it. Meanwhile, conservative people adhere to the previous faith that when the economy grows and technology advances are made, all problems are resolved naturally.

In this way, Jonathan Polito still supports capitalism in a violent confrontation situation that goes through poles and poles, but in order to solve the chronic Mungjet distance mentioned earlier, Jonathan Polit is currently seeking growth first principle, capitalism If we must innovate in a sustainable capitalist system we say that we can draw a positive future.

It is a fact that modern growth capitalism that mass produces side effects that can not be denied, such as climate change, expansion of the gap between rich and poor, economic exploitation, environmental destruction, resource depletion is inherently impossible to sustain. But even now, there is no suitable system to replace capitalism so far, even if there are people, people are not even ready to accept the rapid change of the same system changeover with the revolution. Considering all of these things, it will be a burden not only for a while but also for the rest of the time to start something new before climate change that seems to have already started.

However, capitalism has the advantages of short-term mobility, creativity, efficiency, if we convert it to the driving force of sustainable development, capitalism can only fulfill the change of shocking, 'unimaginable' Autonomous coordination system, the authors explain. Briefly, it is like changing the rule of 'game rule' like the words of Gretchen Daily, a professor of biology at Stanford University and Journalist Ellison who received the Pulitzer Prize. Moreover, capitalism is 'sustainable capitalism' which is essentially a completely different type from the capitalism so far.

And blindly be careful of technology as it has escaped from growth blind belief. It is true that technology gave a lot of benefits to humanity, but it is also true that mass production of many side effects. We must also change our mindset so that only technology can save us from religious blind faith and irresponsible fantasy. Politicians and entrepreneurs acknowledge that human economic activities are essentially belonging to ecosystems and deeply relate this point to all policies that all human activities harmonize with the ecosystem, You should avoid wasting resources used by future descendants. And although it is difficult for consumers to reduce consumption in reality, it is necessary to use smart consumption considering carbon consumption and energy efficiency, vanity excess consumption and mere consumption of consumption for consumption It will not.

In front of disasters due to climate change and the collapse of the ecosystem, there are already scientists who think that 'breakthrough? Collapse?', Already active and aggressive choice opportunities for this already, Some scientists believe that the hope of remaining remains. The author explains the biophysical limit of growth through detailed research on alternative models of capitalism, warns that human souls are seriously broken through uncontrolled materialism, and is ironic In particular, as a solution for that, we choose capitalism. However, the alternative capitalism that he presented requires democratic paradigm shift, technology • thinking • innovation in behavior. Among these changes, the biggest difference with capitalism we know is capitalism that takes biological physics and sustainability into account. It is sustainable capitalism that can become the driving force for sustainable development.

In order to prove the relevance and possibility of sustainable capitalism, the author analyzed a diverse range of interrelated, highly diverse fields such as politics, society, economy and climate change. The point of drilling down such complicated dynamics in detail may be a great opportunity to expand the range of knowledge for the original pursuit of diverse and deep knowledge, with abundant prior knowledge, but if not, or to simplify Comprehensive content that is too academic for the readers who like preference is boring, and there is also the possibility of losing the persuasive power a little. Nevertheless, if you are a person who care about the future of the Earth and humanity even if you do not want to friendship of who Rachel Louise Carson was worried about by climate change, this book 『Capitalism as if the World Matters』 will tell You can not clearly deny the message to be.




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